Tyagaraja’s Thiruvaiyaru and Thanjavur, a tour

July 18, 2016


What does this Tuesday Ghat Chattiram have to do with the Tyagaraja Kriti paralOka sAdhanamE?

To know this and more, join historian Sriram V on a journey to Thanjavur and Thiruvaiyaru from September 2 to 4, 2016. We will be accompanied by Carnatic singer Ashwath Narayanan who will regale us with some of the great compositions of Tyagaraja during the tour.

We leave by luxury coach and stay for two nights at Ideal River Resorts, Thanjavur.


Departure on Sept 2 at 6.00 am

Return on Sept 4 at 7.00 pm

We return by the evening of the 4th to Chennai.

Charges per person: Rs 16,500 inclusive of travel, stay and food. Rooms are charged on twin sharing basis.

Cancellation charges: 50% will be deducted in case of cancellation two weeks before tour. There will be no refund post that.

Payment Options:

1. You can pay by bank transfer to the following account and then send an email with details to walks@chennaipastforward.com:

Account Name: Past Forward
Account Type: Current
Bank Name: The Federal Bank Ltd
A/c No. 12820200104237
Branch: Royapettah

2. You can drop off a cheque in the name of Past Forward at the following address:

c/o HVK Systems,
2&3, Bhattad Tower,
30, Westcott Road,
Royapettah, Chennai 600014

Gokhale Hall’s glorious past

July 27, 2016

Tucked away in Armenian Street, in the same line as the Armenian Church, St. Mary’s Cathedral and the headquarters of Binny’s stands the stately building which houses the Young Men’s Indian Association (YMIA). The Association owes the existence to Annie Besant, the Theosophist, social reformer and Indian nationalist.Notable among her contributions were the creation of the Central Hindu College of Benares, which later was to expand into the Banaras Hindu University, her involvement in the Scout Movement, and her sponsorship of the Indian Women’s Association (IWA). She had also becomes the President of the Theosophical Society in Adyar in 1907 and since then Madras had become her home.

Founded by Annie Besant in February 1914, the Young Men’s Indian Association was created by her to provide “a political gymnasium as it were, to equip the youth with a strong body, an informed mind and a noble character to inherit and imbibe the country’s glorious tradition and to take their rightful place as leaders of the future. She planned to create a home for the Association, which would have hosted facilities for students who came from locations outside Madras, a library, a gymnasium, a canteen and a lecture hall.

In the Besant Centenary Book, A. Ranganatha Mudaliar has written that she felt the necessity of the Hall in “the times ahead, when there would be difficulties for free expression of opinion for want of a hall whose authorities were prepared to resist official pressure and let in the used freely even if it was to severely criticise the policy and methods of the Government”. This hall was named after Gopal Krishna Gokhale, founder of the Servants of India Society, patriot, social reformer and a pioneer in education. It is not clear whether Mrs. Besant intended to name the hall after Gokhale even in 1914, but his death in 1915 may have been the cause. The Association had among its founding fathers, such luminaries as Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Ayyar, Sir Pitty Tyagaraya Chetty, Sir V.P. Madhava Row, former Dewan of Mysore, G.A. Natesan, Dewan Bahadur (later Sir) T.Sadasiva Iyer and the Hon. F.B. Tyabji, both Judges of the High Court, Madras and K.S. Chandrashekhara Iyer, Judge, Chief Court of Mysore. Sir S. Subramanya Iyer was its first president.
Annie Besant funded the buildings in her personal capacity C. Jinarajadasa, the noted Theosophist and writer, laid the foundation stone in May 1914. Rao Saheb G. Subbiah Chettiar, Hon. Magistrate and Auditor, Madras Customs managed the construction. By the end of 1915, the buildings were ready and the Association moved into its home at 66, Armenian Street.
The Gokhale Hall, with its magnificent dome, its large balcony and its wonderful acoustics soon became the centre of cultural, literary and artistic endeavours. It was originally intended as a lecture hall and many were the fiery speeches to which its walls echoed. Annie Besant delivered here famous “Wake Up India” lectures from this platform. Almost all the political leaders of the time spoke at the Gokhale Hall, Mahatma Gandhi addressed the public here. So did Jawaharlal Nehru. On the days of his address, the Hall and the street beyond would be inaccessible, with the youth of Madras long having taken up all the vantage points. Despite such crowds, the Hall rarely became unbearably hot – its high dome and large windows contributing to ample ventilation. However, the sole entrance cum exit was a problem.

Annie Besant could not but be satisfied at the kind of position that the Hall had achieved that the Hall had achieved in the social life of Madras. Later she was to write with justifiable pride “Where could the new dynamism of our politics after 1914, have found a platform, if in Madras there had been no Gokhale Hall?”
Writing a tribute to Mrs. Besant and the Hall, Pandit Nehru wrote: “The Gokhale Hall has been the scene of great achievements in oratory and public speaking as well as music and the fine arts. It has received with open arms, persons of every description without distinction of caste, creed, colour or political persuasion. The Hall ever reminds us of the master voice of its founder and no one associated with it can ever forget the inspiration of that voice.”
Annie Besant passed away in 1933 and she is remembered with a statue in the entrance lobby. After her, several great personalities such as Sir CP, Dr. G.S. Arundale, Rukmini Devi, Sir P.S. Sivaswamy Iyer, Dewan Bahadur Govindoss Chatturbhu­ja­doss, Chitra S. Narayana­swamy, K. Balasubramania Iyer, C.R. Parthasarathy Iyengar and Khan Bahadur Ghulam Moham­med Muhazir, guided the Association. The Hall was the venue for several political meetings till the 1960s. One of the best descriptions of a meeting at the Hall is in Monica Felton’s I meet Rajaji.
George Town was the centre of urban life in the early part of the 20th Century. The Ramanuja Koodam-s, the Bhajana Man­diram-s, the Matham-s and the Patnam temples were all venue of the music, dance and theatrical performances. The YMCA on the Esplanade was also the venue for programmes. Gokhale Hall when it came up, became the most popular venue. Kalki Krishnamurthy, the celebrated writer, regularly attended the programmes and his reviews appearing under the nom de plume “Karnatakam”, in Ananda Vikatan, could make or break an artist’s reputation. Filled with pungent wit, they nevertheless displayed his know­ledge of the subject. Kalki, an ­ardent lover of Tamil, began to lament the emphasis given to singing songs in Telugu and ­Sanskrit. C.N. Annadurai, later to become the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, also wrote in the 1930s of how he used to patiently listen to Naina Pillai singing song after song in Telugu, just to have the pleasure of hearing him sing a Tiruppugazh at the end. Slowly a movement for bringing Tamil compositions to the fore gained momentum and Gokhale Hall ­became the venue for these Tamil Isai concerts. Kalki’s close friend T. Sadasivam and his wife M.S. Subbulakshmi joined the movement which gave it a major fillip. The powerful Justice Party also threw its weight behind the movement and many bigwigs such as Sir K. Ramunni Menon, Raja Sir Annamalai Chettiar, Sir Pitty Tyagaraya Chetty, and the Mudaliar twins championed the cause from the Gokhale Hall.
The first full fledged Tamil Isai Festival took place at the St. Mary’s Co. Cathedral Parish Hall on Armenian Street in 1943. Artists such as M.M. Dandapani Desigar, T.N. Swaminatha Pillai, M.K. Thyagaraja Bhagavatar, and M.S. Subbulakshmi performed to full houses and their concerts were reviewed by an ­ecstatic Kalki Krishnamurthy, flushed as he was with the ­success of the Tamil Isai ­Movement. The next year witnessed performances at the Gokhale Hall itself and Kalki once again reported about the 5000 plus crowd that thronged the Hall and the street outside to listen to their favourite artists. M.S. Subbalakshmi’s concert that year in particular, boycotted as she was by the Music Academy for her involvement in Tamil Isai, drew mammoth crowds and resulted in record gate collections.

The success of the Sangam encouraged Rajah Sir Anna­malai Chettiar to announce the building of an auditorium for the Sangam and this soon came up as the Rajah Annamalai Man­ram on Esplanade. The Sangam began holding its performances there and has continued there ever since. With the departure of the Sangam, Gokhale Hall gradually began losing its position of eminence in Carnatic music. The Annamalai Manram was more easily accessible land had a larger seating capacity and better interiors. George Town was fast becoming a commercial centre and most of the patrons had move to South Madras. The peregrinating Indian Fine Arts Society held its annual conference for about fifteen years in the Hall, till the mid 1950s. But performances on a regular basis stopped, though programmes were held occasionally till the late 1960s, and early 70s.
There was a brief revival in October 1964, when the YMIA and the Hall celebrated their Golden Jubilee. Held under Sir CP’s supervision, the festivities were inaugurated by the then Vice-President of India Dr. Zakir Hussain and the Governor of Madras, Jayachamaraja Wode­yar. The noted nagaswara artist Veerusamy Pillai gave a performance on that occasion. For many years, it was customary for Kalakshetra, to hold its dance performances here, especially on the birthday of Dr. Annie Besant. Rukmini Arundale herself served as President of the YMIA after Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer passed away.
I was first introduced to the glories of Gokhale Hall by my friend Sanjay Subrahmanyan and together we made it a regular stop during our annual heritage walks in George Town. One of the regulars during these walks, S. Thiagarajan, grandnephew of Musiri Subramania Iyer, came forward to host a concert of Sanjay’s at Gokhale Hall in order to revive old memories. The concert was held in 2002. Since then Gokhale Hall has not witnessed any music prog­rammes. A misguided attempt to demolish it was stalled by the High Court and since then the building is surviving as a decrepit shell. Its future depends on the outcome of an appeal in the Supreme Court.

Semmangudi’s autograph

July 25, 2016

Today is Semmangudi’s birthday. Early this morning I happened to chance on a commemorative volume brought out by the Sri Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Golden Jubilee Trust when he turned 80. It is a treasured possession of mine, as the book was personally autographed by the maestro for me.


It happened this way. Between 1995 and 2002 I learnt music from V Subrahmaniam, one of Semmangudi’s senior disciples. One year, I was asked by him to help him sell off the surplus stock of the book, Semmangudi 80. I offered to put it up on sale on http://www.sangeetham.com, the site I was then running with Sanjay Subrahmanyan. I also offered to buy the first copy. “In that case why don’t you get Semmangudi Mama’s autograph on it?” asked VS Sir. I was inwardly thrilled but there was one prospect that terrified me – what if he asked me to sing? I mentioned this to VS Sir who was tickled pink at my discomfort. “Who knows? He has lived long enough to suffer many things,” was his answer.

The appointment was duly fixed and I went, quaking with fear, to Semmangudi’s house on Lloyd Lane. He was seated in his easy chair and looked me up and down. I did my namaskaram (shAShTangam) and then extended my copy of Semmangudi 80, reflecting on how if he had been younger, the maestro would have asked for a fee of Re 1 for his autograph, to be donated to the Tyagaraja Aradhana!

Having signed the book he returned it to me and then asked about my ‘pUrvIkam’. I said my grandfather was V Ramaiya, a senior official of the South Indian Railway.

“Was he not in Trichy?” asked Semmangudi.

“Yes,” I replied.

“I have sung for his daughters’ weddings,” he pronounced. “One was in 1936 and the other sometime in the 1940s.”

I was speechless, at his amazing memory.

“The second daughter used to sing very well.”

Now this was veering rather too close to music for my comfort. But I said yes. (This aunt by the way was the grandmother of Amrita Murali and we were very close to each other.)

“Rajamani (that is how VS Sir was known at home) said you learn music from him…”

I held my breath. But the Gods had willed that Semmangudi was to be spared that punishment. The telephone rang and someone came to give him the instrument. I made good my escape.

VS was not happy that I evaded the opportunity this way but we soon exhausted all stocks of Semmangudi 80. We got the maestro to sign some more copies and sold those off at a higher price! VS sir was delighted and he informed me that Semmangudi was thrilled that he had so many fans ‘after so many years’. That group is probably increasing even now!

The Sri Senmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Golden Jubilee Trust is awarding a purse today to Tavil vidwAn Poraiyaru Venugopala Pillai. This will be followed by a concert by Ramakrishnan Murthy accompanied  by RK Shriram Kumar and K Arun Prakash. Venue: Music Academy Mini Hall, 6.00 pm.


All are welcome

Restoration, Police Style

July 19, 2016


The Royapettah police sta-tion has been part of the regular beat of The Man from Madras Musings. By that he does not mean he is a Known Delinquent (KD in local parlance) but simply that he passes by it almost on a daily basis. For that matter, MMM recalls passing by it even when he was a stripling, a mere mmm, so to speak. He even recalls in those days, and here those who are younger Than MMM will forgive him for slipping into anecdotage, which is the surest sign of dotage, a signboard that used to be on one of the sidewalls of the ­station. This was to ostensibly encourage safe driving and featured a family of five – father, mother and younger child on a scooter with grandmother and older child in a sidecar (remember those?). The message implied that Father was responsible for the well being of everyone in the vehicle(s) and so he better drive carefully. For some reason, that picture has remained in MMM’s mind. Probably because the characters portrayed looked extraordinarily happy.

Be that as it may, the point at issue is not the signboard but the police station as a whole. Over the years it had been allowed to deteriorate, those in occupation complain­ed of lack of space and modern amenities, and so it was high time that the place went in for a makeover. In the past this would have meant wholesale demolition, but, what with the Chief hammering home the message of conservation, attitudes have changed. That led to a new breed-people who talked of preserving old buildings but invariably condemned them to a fate worse than demolition-converting them into museums that nobody visited. But not so the Royapettah police station. It was announced that the police would move out, the older part of the building would be renovated, newer bits would be demo­lished to make way for still newer bits, and, finally, the ­police would move back. ­Every­one who is someone in the world of conservation was delighted. None more so than MMM who conveyed the news to the Chief with a hey nonny no and a hot cha cha.

Work began shortly thereafter. The police moved out and the annexe was pulled down revealing a beautiful gothic rear side of the old building. Shortly thereafter, work began on a new annexe that promises to seal the rear of the main building forever and is quite likely, from what it appears now, to be the ugliest building on the entire stretch – and, mind you, there is no dearth of ugly structures on this road. A large area fronting the police station has been cordoned off to house the construction equipment. But nobody appears to be bothered about the side of the building. This has housed for years a run down white van that probably was confiscated by the police and never claimed by the rightful owner, if ever there was one. Over time, the building and the van seem to have developed an affinity and it is most likely that the van itself is considered an integral part of the building. Or perhaps the walls rest on the van, which if moved will cause the whole edi­fice to tumble. The local popu­lace views the van as a convenient rubbish dump and it will astonish you to know the kind of stuff that rests alongside it – plenty of sawn down trees, a sofa set or two and, some­times, even a discarded water closet. Political parties view the van as an extension of the wall space and paste posters on it.

So, naturally, given its importance, the van has not been shifted and remains where it his long been, despite the hectic construction happening alongside. Last seen, the local cattle have begun to view the cordoned off area in front of the police station as a natural pen and have moved into it. The other day, a couple of cows fought with each other over a plastic bag and provided much entertainment to all. It remains to be seen as to how the entire restoration will pan out. So, watch this space for more.

Hidden histories: The Legend of Lord Labak Das

July 15, 2016

Take for instance the story of Lord Labak Das. That phrase, for it cannot be qualified as a name, though an old one, became famous following a sequence involving comedian Vivek in a movie…

Source: Hidden histories: The story behind Lord Labak Das

Surveying, Railway Style

July 11, 2016

Those who follow these outpourings of The Man from Madras Musings know that he gets around quite a bit and much of his travel is by train. In the past, MMM has written feelingly about nights of horror when he, as a guest of our railways, has had to deal with filthy toilets, plenty of four, six, eight and even hundred legged co-passengers, and, above all, water supply – either none at all or too much of it, threatening to flood the entire coach. Of his travails caused by fellow passengers-snoring, persistent usage of cell phones, playing videos loudly and, above all, quarrelling in public, MMM will say nothing. After all, the railways are a public service and you cannot choose whom you travel with. If MMM is so finicky, why does he not charter his own plane, as an auto­rick­shaw driver once asked of him. But in short (and MMM would have shortened all of this if he had enough content), MMM has much more to say about our railways and has been biding his time for a suitable opportunity.

Conceive his delight when the other day MMM’s phone rang and the regulation recorded dulcet voice at the other end announced that it was calling from the Indian Railways and would MMM care to answer a survey and, if so, press 1 on his telephone. MMM duly did and the voice expressed its delight. Its first question, it cooed, was on punctuality. On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being verrrrry bad and 5 being verrrrry good, said the voice) how would MMM rate the railways. MMM unhesi­ta­tingly gave 5. He has no complaint on that aspect of the service and when you know the kind of hazards our railways go through, the most frequent being people talking on cell phones and walking on the tracks, it is really a wonder that trains run on time.

The next question was on food. And here MMM gave the railways a 1. MMM, as you know, has suffered enough, what with coloured water passing off as soup, sambar as a side dish for chappatis because there was no dal, idli-s that you could use to break the emergency window open in case there was a fire and the hammer was not in its usual place, and, of course, chopped onions that would have been fresh when the first railway line was laid. The voice thank­ed MMM once again and he braced himself for the subsequent questions. He fully ­expected these to be on cleanliness of toilets, the hygiene in compartments and the quality of bed linen. But, no, for the railways apparently considered punctuality and food to be the only two concerns that it needs to bother with. Perhaps it was the poor rating that MMM gave on the culinary score, though the voice did not take any offence, but he was immediately thanked profusely and informed that the results of the survey would soon be up in the public media. The call then went dead.

Sure enough, the results were published in newspapers a couple of days later. The railways, said the report, had been rated highly on punctuality and people felt that there had been a marked improvement in this area in the last two years. MMM wondered as to when a survey had been done earlier whose findings could have been used to compare the present rating with and, therefore, from which an improvement could be concluded. There was, however, no mention of the food rating.

Announcing Madras Week 2016

July 7, 2016

Announcing Madras Week 2016

Madras Week will be celebrated between the 21st and 28th of August. In the past years we have had enthusiastic city-wide celebrations with excellent support from the media, old and new. We trust that this year will be no different. The Week, which started off as Madras Day 13 years ago to celebrate our city has become virtually a Madras Month judging by the programming last year. The celebrations this year are, like last year, likely to be spread throughout August and will carry on till the first week of September. For the small band of volunteers who catalysed this celebration and now help coordinate the programmes, the response from corporates, educational institutions, citizens of the city, and even diplomatic missions has given enormous satisfaction.

Participation is purely a VOLUNTARY effort by those wanting to organise programmes during the Week. The role of the informal group of co-coordinators is only to encourage such participation, try to organise publicity for the events, offer advice, and, where possible, arrange venues. This is A FIRST CALL for individuals/ groups / institutions who wish to join in VOLUNTARILY to celebrate the founding of our city

This year, the hotels of the city will, once again, be enthusiastic participants. Some will be venues for talks while others will host art and photographic exhibitions besides organising other festivals. Art galleries have also taken to this event in a big way. And so have diplomatic missions and their cultural centres.

We are certain that the various organisations that are active participants, such as the Madras Naturalists’ Society, Nizhal, the photography groups, the Observer Research Foundation, the Roja Muthiah Research Library, the CP Ramaswami Aiyar Centre, The Press Institute of India, the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) Chennai Chapter, Mylapore Times and Yocee amongst others, will be organising programmes. These will include walks, quiz contests and other such events. As has been the practice in past years, Chennai Heritage, publishers of Madras Musings, will be hosting eight talks at various locations, on subjects related to the city. The celebrations will also coincide with the silver jubilee of Madras Musings. Chennai Heritage will be leading several heritage walks in the city during the Week, as will several individuals. In the past couple of years we have seen groups being formed on documenting our rivers – the Cooum and the Adyar. We are certain they will be participating this year also.

The INTACH Chennai Chapter in particular hopes schools and colleges wishing to organise celebratory activities will get in touch with it. The last few years have seen a considerable increase in the number of schools that have initiated heritage clubs thanks to INTACH’s efforts. The current strength will definitely add volume and value to Madras Week.

Perhaps indicative of the success of Madras Week as a means of creating awareness about the City and its heritage is the number of institutions that have come forward each year to celebrate the city. Several IT companies organised programmes last year and are planning to do more this year. So have several Social and Sports Clubs, Rotary Clubs, and cultural centres. The celebrations have also spread to the suburbs such as Tiruvanmiyur, Nanganallur and Tambaram. Private apartment blocks and various societies are planning their own events. The Coordinators look forward to several more participants this year. A special effort is being made to host events in Tamil also, to bring about greater inclusivity in the celebrations.

Special efforts are on to rope in celebrants in North Chennai and the assistance of volunteers in this cause would be greatly appreciated.

Those who are planning events are requested to send in details by email to the following Ids -editor@madrasmusings.com and themadrasday@gmail.com. Details so received will be put up on the web site http://www.themadrasday.in and also the mobile app Madras Week. In addition, a multi-page booklet with programmes will also be published and distributed closer to the date of the event by Madras Musings, whose website is http://www.madrasmusings.com

Twitter handle for the year – #MW2016 or #MadrasWeek or #MadrasWeek2016


Tour of Tyagaraja’s Thiruvaiyaru & Thanjavur

July 6, 2016

image.jpegTyagaraja’s Thanjavur & Thiruvaiyaru, a Tour

Tyagaraja! The Tone Poet of Humanity as Dr V Raghavan wrote of him! Where would our music be without this wondrous personality who was born 250 years ago? In a life span that was just short of eighty, Tyagaraja left behind for us to enjoy 600 and more songs and two operas. These are not just prayers to his beloved Rama and other deities but observations of human life that will be relevant even 1000 years hence.

Tyagaraja lived all his life in Thiruvaiyaru. This village therefore holds within it several vestiges of his time. Many are rapidly vanishing and some are happily for us, still standing. Just 13 km before Thiruvaiyaru is Thanjavur, the cradle of classical music and dance, whose fostering of the arts over centuries ensured that an atmosphere existed in which Tyagaraja, and his illustrious contemporaries, Syama Sastry and Muttuswami Dikshitar could practice their art.

Come and join historian Sriram V on a journey to Thanjavur and Thiruvaiyaru from September 2 to 4, 2016. We will be accompanied by Carnatic singer Ashwath Narayanan who will regale us with some of the great compositions of Tyagaraja during the tour.

We leave by luxury coach and stay for two nights at Ideal River Resorts, Thanjavur.



Departure on Sept 2 at 6.00 am

Return on Sept 4 at 7.00 pm

We return by the evening of the 4th to Chennai.

Charges per person: Rs 16,500 inclusive of travel, stay and food. Rooms are charged on twin sharing basis.

Cancellation charges: 50% will be deducted in case of cancellation two weeks before tour. There will be no refund post that.

Payment Options:

1. You can pay by bank transfer to the following account and then send an email with details to walks@chennaipastforward.com:

Account Name: Past Forward
Account Type: Current
Bank Name: The Federal Bank Ltd
A/c No. 12820200104237
Branch: Royapettah

2. You can drop off a cheque in the name of Past Forward at the following address:

c/o HVK Systems,
2&3, Bhattad Tower,
30, Westcott Road,
Royapettah, Chennai 600014

My Tally of Heritage Walks

July 4, 2016


Years ago, when I began heritage walks in Chennai, I had said it had the potential for 100 different  heritage routes. I have done 45 so far within the city. For good measure, I have thrown in the six outstation tours as well. Here is the tally till date:

1. Musical Heritage of Mylapore

2. Musical Heritage of George Town
3. Musical Heritage of Triplicane
4. The Dancing Girls of George Town
5. Wandering Around Vepery
6. The Women of the Marina
7. Triplicane
8. Mylapore
9. Kutcheri Road
10. The Portuguese Influence on San Thome
11. The Town Wall of Madras
12. Peering at Purasawalkam
13. A Slice of Mount Road
14. Checking Out Chintadripet
15. The Justice Party Walk
16. T Nagar
17. Armenian Street
18. Meandering down Mint Street
19. Broadway walk
20. The Mercantile History of Madras
21. NSC Bose Road
22. Park Town
23. Gandhi Nagar
24. Alwarpet
25. Roundabout Royapettah
26. The Ghosts of RK Salai
27. George Town by Night
28. The Village of Mylapore
29. V Krishnaswami Iyer Memorial Walk
30. The Lawyers of Luz Church Road
31. The Royal Madras Yacht Club
32. Mylapore and The Freedom Struggle
33. Going Around Gemini
34. The Beach Walk
35. Fort St George
36. Peering Into Purasaiwalkam
37. Tyagaraja’s Kovur
38. Homes of the Music Academy
39. The American Connection to Madras
40. Royapuram
41. Chidambaram
42. Tranquebar
43. Madurai
44. Trichy
45. Thanjavur
46. Kumbhakonam
47. Dubashes of George Town
48. Lloyds Road
49. Egmore and its Environs
50. Coursing Down College Road
51. The Madras Literary Society Walk

Hidden histories: The Raja who became Chief Minister

July 1, 2016

The Raja of Panagal, he of Panagal Park, will turn 150 on July 9 this year…

Source: Hidden histories: The Raja who became Chief Minister


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 5,648 other followers

%d bloggers like this: